Outhouse Biofuel Production
One of the most effective biogas projects is implemented in rural Nepal. The Nepalese Government’s Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) already has helped build 200,000 biogas systems across the country and achieves target of 1.8 million more home plants. 7,500 of them were realized with the support of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Such local biogas systems provide multiple “byproducts”:
By metabolizing bovine and human feces, each methane plant can save about 4.5 tons of firewood each year equiv. to 4 tons of greenhouse gas emissions (WWF). Furthermore it reduces the spreading of diseases by the air tightness of the dung and excrement pits and frees girls and women from the torture of eye-irritations and respiratory distresse (caused by the chocking smoke) as well as from the burden of washing the family’s laundry too often.
Read more: Biogas Offers Poor Countries a Cleaner, Safer Fuel by Amy Yee (NYT/IHT)
Farming for Biomass
On September 27, 2011 Pahang Biodiesel Corp Sdn Bhd (PBC) in Rompin, Pahang signed a memorandum of agreement with Algaetech International Sdn Bhd. With estimated costs of 1.2 billion ringgit, or $383 million, Malaysian Integrated Algae Valley will build and run a huge algae farm with a targeted production of 500,000 tons of dry biomass a year, with an oil yield of about 30 percent, equivalent to 150,000 tons of biofuel per year:
Why producing micro-algae for biofuel? – Micro-algae are, by a factor of 8 to 25 for palm oil and a factor of 40 to 120 for rapeseed, the highest potential energy yield temperate vegetable oil crop. Positive and useful byproducts of “biodiesel from high lipid-content algae” are “carotenes, antioxidants, proteins and starch“. This all could be the bedrock argument for a highly recommended renouncement from growing oilseed crops for biomass because these use to displace the food crops grown to feed mankind.
Read more: Farming for Energy Starts to Gain Ground by Sonya Kolesnikov-Jessop (NYT/IHT)
Biofuels in Aviation
Immediately after the approval of the commercial use of renewable jet fuels derived from natural plant oils and animal fat (hydrotreated renewable jet fuels, or H.R.J. fuels, to be mixed with conventional kerosene up to 50 percent) by the international certifying body ASTM International, in July 2011, German airline Lufthansa started a “six-month biofuel trial on regularly scheduled flights with its Airbus A321 on the Hamburg-Frankfurt route eight times daily.” While the German carrier is using a 50 percent blend of bio-synthetic kerosene in one of the two engines” (while the other engine runs on pure jet fuel), the KLM Royal Dutch Airlines started a regular commercial service between Amsterdam and Paris on September 30 using biofuel made with used cooking oil. – Lufthansa “is already reducing its carbon dioxide emissions by one ton per flight,” said Joachim Buse, Lufthansa vice president for aviation biofuel.
Read more: Flying With Biofuel Gets One Step Closer by Sonya Kolesnikov-Jessop (NYT/IHT)
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